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370                                    ZIPHIUS                                   CHAP.
ZipKius is a genus which is also of world-wide range. Here
again the number of species is a.t present merely a matter of
opinion. The prevalent impression, however, is that but a
single species exists, which will therefore have the name of
Z. cavirostris. The genus {and for the matter of that the species
too) may be thus characterised in comparison with its allies.
The mesethmoid is ossiiied as in Mesoplodon, but the nasals joined
together form the vertex of the skull. There are two teeth near
the symphysis of the mandible, besides the usual small and
" functionless " teeth in the upper jaw. The vertebral formula is
C 7, D 9 or 10, L 11, Ca 21.
The throat of a Ziphius from ~N&w Zealand was described by
Messrs. Scott and Parker1 as having three grooves on each side.
"Whether this form is the same as von Haast's Z. novae zelandiae
is a matter of doubt; but the individual to which his name has
been applied was 26 feet long, and had but a single groove on
each side. Even in the external characters of many Whales many
points require clearing up. Our knowledge of Ziphius dates from
the year 1804, when a skull " completely petrified in appearance "
was picked up upon the Mediterranean coast of France, and
described by the great Cuvier. It was forty years before another
specimen was found. In the New Zealand specimen of von
Haast already referred to, the body was scored by numerous
lacerations. These wounds may have been due to fights among
the Whales themselves ; the forwardly-situated teeth would be
capable of inflicting such wounds. But it has also been stated
that the armed suckers of gigantic cuttle-fish are responsible for
these scratches.
Hyperoodon is the most easily - distinguishable genus of
Ziphioid Whales. Its characters are the following:—The skull
has enormously-developed maxillary crests in the adult male ; the
mesethmoid is not fully ossified. There is but a single tooth to
each ramus of the lower jaw, besides, of course, the usual small
teeth in the upper jaw. The vertebral formula is C 7, D 9, X. 9,
Ca 18. The cervicals are fused into one mass, more or fewer
being free in other Ziphioids. The sternum consists of three
pieces only, the last of which is bifid posteriorly.
The name Hyper&odon was given to this Whale by Colonel
Lacepede on account of the rough papillae upon the palate, which
1 Trans. Zool. Soc. xii. 1889, p. 241.